Map of Osaka in 1868
Map of Osaka in 1868. The Dutch Consulate was located at the edge of the Kawaguchi Foreign Settlement.

Notebooks
Hiogo-Kobe-Osaka Data

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DATA FOR HIOGO, KOBE, OSAKA : INTRODUCTION

This page features the raw research notes made during the research stage. The notes are incomplete and may contain initial errors in understanding that were corrected in the final text. They are nonetheless helpful for further study. The data on this page is not shown in the printed book.

IMPORTANT: Not all raw data discovered is displayed on this website. There is more data in my personal notes.

KOBE LOCATIONS

These are the known locations of the Consulate and Consulate-General in Kobe (initially known as Hiogo, now spelled as Hyogo). The years are mostly (but not exclusively) based on the publication years of the Japan Directory, the Yellow Pages, etc., so they need to be checked more carefully. They generally run one year behind.

On September 10, 1868 NHM purchases lot No. 5 at an auction held at the new customs house (source: Opening a Window to the West. The Foreign Concession at Kōbe, Japan, 1868-1899, pp 35). Some eight months after the auction, NHM is erecting buildings at No. 5 and 19 (ibid, pp 39). Albertus Johannes Bauduin is both an employee and the consul of the Netherlands, so the NHM building at No. 5 becomes the consulate.

The NHM Hiogo office, established upon the port opening on January 1, 1868, was a sub-agency of the Dejima office. It was discontinued on September 30, 1878. Between 1868 and 1874 the NHM chief agent for Japan was based in Hiogo (Source: Voor Handel en Maatschappij. Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, 1824-1964, Bijlage 1).

The Hiogo News May 6th, 1869
Page 367
(87 in book 22)

On Lot No. 5, a Stone Godown is approaching completion for The Netherlands Trading Society

On Lot No. 19, The Netherlands Trading Society has completed a Stone Godown.

On the North, stands the European-built house at present occupied by the Netherlands Trading Society.

Along the Beach, and Water Street stand the following buildings: … Godown of Messrs. Hecht, Lilienthal & Co.; Messrs. Wachtels, Groos & Co.; and the Netherlands Trading Society; …

The Hiogo News October 27th, 1869
Page 530
(76 in book 25)

On lot No. 5 the Netherlands Trading Society have completed a stone godown, and the framework is erected of two substantial stone buildings—one a bungalow to be used to for residence; the other for business premises, etc.

01 1868–1869 Zenshōji temple (善照寺) in what is now Motomachi 3-chome

1868–1870 — Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul
02 1869–1870 Ikuta Baba, east of Sannomiya Jinja shrine, building owned by the Bonger brothers

1868–1870 — Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul
03 1870–1878? No. 5 Kaigandori

1871?–1874? — Willem Conrad Korthals, Acting Consul and Consul

However, on June 1, 1868, Korthals is acting consul according to this letter

Data is missing for 1875–1878. No address or consul known. But in the collection of the Kobe City Museum is a painting dated 1878 by Charles Burton Bernard (1853-1947). The Dutch flag is shown on No. 5. This could however also be for the Netherlands Trading Agency located in the same building.

This letter from 1876 is signed by the Consul of the Netherlands J. C. Klein. This one, too. And this one from 1875. Klein was based in Osaka, but his letters say he was consul for Hiogo/Osaka. Was there nobody in Kobe, or did he travel between both places?
04 1878?–1897 No. 91
05 1897–1899 48, Nakayamate-dori, Sanchome
06 1900–1902 Suwayama 3, Yamamoto-dori Gochome
07 1902–1903 8, Nakayamate-dori Itchome
08 1903–1909 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome
09 1909 125, Kitano-cho Itchome
10 1910 12, Nakayamate-dori
11 1911–1915 80, Kyo-machi
12 1915 78-B, Kyo-machi
13 1916–1919 81, Kyo-machi
14 1919 76, Kyo-machi
15 1920– 1922 28, Harima-machi
16 1922– 1931? 72, Kyo-machi (Crescent Building)

Effective from January 1, 1930, the Consulate of the Netherlands in Kobe is upgraded to a Consulate-General by Royal Decree no. 63 of April 2, 1930.
17 1932 Missing data
18 1933?–1942 32 Akashi-machi, Kobe-ku (Meikai Building / 明海ビルディング)
19 1946 Unclear
October 3, 1946: C. W. Brand, representative of "this Mission" in Kobe for Western Japan (NL-HaNA_2.05.116_421_0078) Also April 23, 1947: NL-HaNA_2.05.116_322_0030
Letter dated November 29, 1946: 139 Yamamoto-dori 3 chome Kobe (NL-HaNA_2.05.116_421_0074)
May 22, 1947: Kruyt arrives in Kobe (NL-HaNA_2.05.116_322_0022)
Letter dated 1951 (?): 150 Yamamoto-dori, 3-chome, Kobe (NL-HaNA_2.05.116_315_0024 : )
20 1947 – 1948 150 Yamamoto-dori 3 chome
21 1949 – 1950 Missing data
22 1951 24 Kyomachi (c/o National Bank, Bank of Tokyo Building)
23 1952 Missing data
24 1953 – 1956 32 Akashi-machi, Kobe-ku (Meikai Building / 明海ビルディング)
25 1957 Missing data
26 1958? – 1977 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64 Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku.

Current address: Sannomiya Denden Bldg., 64 Naniwamachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe | 650-0035 兵庫県神戸市中央区浪花町64・三宮電電ビルディング
27 1978 – 1995 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 5-1-14 Hamabedori, Fukiai-ku.

Current address: Kobe C.I.T Center Building, 5-1-14, Hamabedori, Chuo-ku, Kobe 651-0083 | 〒651-0083 兵庫県神戸市中央区浜辺通5丁目1−14・神戸商工貿易センタービル

The Kobe Quake forces the Consulate-General to move to Osaka.
70424-0022-Kobe-Foreign-Settlement
Map of “Kobe Former Foreign Settlement” from Terry’s Guide to the Japanese Empire, 1920. Locations of the Dutch Consulate over the years are marked in red. Locations outside the foreign settlement are not shown.

REDO LAYOUT WITH IMAGES?
>> Need to get an image for each location! Or a (period-appropriate) map?

1868 (Keio 4) map of Kobe 01 East of Sannomiya Jinja Shrine

1868 – 1869?
Dutch consulate and Netherlands Trading Society in Kobe 02 No. 5 Kaigandori

1869? – 1878?
03 No. 91 Yedomachi

1878? – 1898? (20 years)

OSAKA LOCATIONS

De Graeff van Polsbroek and chancellor Kleintjes repeatedly stayed at a temple in Teramachi or Nakaderamachi in 1868. In his diary, Kleintjes calls this temple Kenkoen or Kenkoan.

The NHM Osaka office was established upon the opening of the foreign settlement on January 1, 1868. It fell under the Hiogo office from Jan 1868 through 1872. It became an agency in 1872. The office was discontinued on June 30, 1874 (Source: Voor Handel en Maatschappij. Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, 1824-1964, Bijlage 1)

Osaka (Japan), opening haven 01.01.1868. Vestiging vanuit Hiogo onder beheer van een geëmployeerde van jan 1868-1872. Agentschap gevestigd in 1872; opgeheven 30.06.1874.

01 1868? – 1872? (5 years?) Pistorius first stays at the residence of "one of the most prominent Japanese merchants," where he raised the Dutch flag (NA 2.05.01: 3147 NL-HaNA_2.05.01_3147_0121). Dutch merchants could stay at the temple that De Graeff van Polsbroek used in Osaka.
Diary Kleintjes January 21: "Pistorius moves into his own house here."
Umemotocho, Kawaguchi (川口梅本町)

Pieter Eduard Pistorius, Vice-Consul
1873? – 1874? Missing data

December 23: Johann Carl Jacob Klein asks for brief leave of absence (NL-HaNA_2.05.10.08_29_0456).
02 1875? – 1877? (3 years?) 4 Hakodate Yashiki

Johann Carl Jacob Klein, Vice-Consul
1877? – 1995 (119 years) No representation
03 1995 (need to know exact dates!) Rm. 2726, Osaka Hilton Hotel, 1-8-8 Umeda, Kita-ku

Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General
04 1996–2016 Twin 21 MID Tower, 2-1-61 Shiromi, Chuo-ku. (Initially 6th floor. Later 33rd floor. From when? Any other floors?)
05 2016–Present Kitahama 1-Chome Heiwa building 8B, 1-1-14 Kitahama, Chuo-ku

The Consulate-General moved to its new address between September 15 and 18, the first working day was September 19, 2016. The Consulate-general was officially opened by Osaka Mayor Hirofumi Yoshimura (吉村 洋文, 2015–2019) on November 15, 2016. The Consulate-general was moved because of Het Nieuwe Werken project; an open working space replaced individual offices, which meant that less space was needed.

TO DO

  1. Locate and mark the locations on vintage and modern maps.
  2. Find the exact starting and ending dates, if at all possible.
  3. Find interesting human interest stories related to the locations (esp. the beginning and the end. How was the first location acquired? Any other disasters in addition to the 1995 quake?).
  4. Find photographs and illustrations of the exteriors or interiors.

QUESTIONS

  1. From when to when was Kobe Bund No. 5 used? (First sale of land in Hiogo and Osaka: ±Feb 5, 1868. Hiogo News reports ca. May 1869 that NHM is erecting buildings at No. 5 and 19.)
  2. Who designed and built Bund No. 5?
  3. Was Kobe Bund No. 5 damaged in the typhoon of 1871?
  4. Dates when the Consulate-general moved since the 1995 Kobe Quake
  5. Was the Consulate-General damaged in the Kobe Quake? What kind of damage? Are there images?
  6. When and how long at the Hilton Hotel (Rm. 2726, Osaka Hilton Hotel, 8-8 Umeda 1-chrome, Kita-ku)
  7. Are there any photos of the Consulate at the Hilton?
  8. Were any staff members hurt or killed by the quake?
  9. Was I the only person allowed to take showers at the temporary location at the Hilton?
  10. When did the US Consulate-General move to Osaka?
  11. Are there photos of the interior or exterior of the Consulate General in Kobe or Osaka?
  12. Names of staff members
  13. During your term did you happen to hear, or read, about any important historical events of the Consulate-General in Kobe since it was opened in the 1860s?
  14. Is there a connection between Cafe Kisaragi (カッフェー・キサラギ跡) and the Dutch Consulate?
  15. Dates that the consulate was located at Kawaguchi, Osaka. Are there sales and rent documents? (And can I find this info for Kobe as well?) Check with Saga Ashita, a professor at Osaka City University (大阪市立大学の佐賀朝)
  16. Kawaguchi, Osaka (NHM, 1868-1874): Where and when was the consulate here?
  17. Are there illustrations (photos, ukiyoe, drawings, etc) of the consulate at Kawaguchi? Construction plans or layouts?
  18. Maps needed: 1) 3-48 Nakayamate-dori (1899–1901); 2) 5-3 Yamamoto-dori, Suwayama (1902); 3) 1-8 Nakayamate-dori (1903); 4) 2-45 Yamamoto-dori (1904–1909); 5) 1-125 Kitano-cho (1910); 6) 12 Nakayamate-dori (1911).

ABOUT KOBE

The Kobe foreign settlement (神戸外国人居留地, Kobe gaikokujin kyoryuchi) was established by the Ansei Treaties (安政条約) and was located in what is now known as Chuo-ku. The settlement had its own government and existed from January 1, 1868 to July 16, 1899.

CONSULS

Text from Nationaal Archief (may not be fully correct): Kobe, de tweede havenstad van Japan en hoofdstad van de prefectuur Hyogo, gelegen aan de baai van Osaka, groeide aan het einde van de 19e eeuw aaneen met de stad Osaka, waar sinds 1868 een consulaat der Nederlanden was gevestigd.

Als eerste – onbezoldigd – consul der Nederlanden te Osaka-Hiogo werd benoemd A.J. Bauduin, agent van de Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij en voorheen consul te Nagasaki.

Als opvolger van J.C.J. Klein werd in juli 1877 benoemd de koopman C.J.W. Braess, wiens dubbele kwaliteit tot talrijke klachten aanleiding gaf. Deze koopman-consul bezat als concurrent van de Nederlandse kooplieden niet de nodige onafhankelijkheid tot het behoorlijk vervullen van zijn taak. De kooplieden in het Verre Oosten beperkten zich niet tot het handeldrijven in een bepaald artikel, maar iedere gelegenheid werd aangegrepen tot het maken van winst.

Nadat C.J.W. Braess bij Koninklijk Besluit van 20 september 1897, no. 59 op verzoek eervol was ontslagen werd de post tot 1900 beheerd door de Russische vice-consul missus te Kobe, Théodore Wassilieff, die tevens de Zweeds-Noorse belangen behartigde. Deze was echter de Nederlandse taal niet machtig en dit was één van de redenen die hem noopte tot ontslag aan te vragen, zodat hij slechts voorlopig de Nederlandse handelsbelangen kon waarnemen.

Op aandrang van de toenmalig Minister van Koloniën Cremer, werd nu bij Koninklijk Besluit van 10 februari 1900, no. 4 tot bezoldigd consul te Kobe aangesteld J.H. de Reus, beroepsconsul te Yokohama, waar nu een honoraire post zou worden gevestigd. Met zijn aanstelling verhuisde het consulaat van Osaka-Hiogo naar Kobe.

Omstreeks 1928 begon men zich af te vragen of onze consulaire vertegenwoordiging in Japan wel in overeenstemming was met de betekenis van ons land. Dat Christiaan Sigis-mund Lechner, sinds 1923 consul te Kobe, de persoonlijke titel van consul-generaal voerde, achtte de Nederlandse Gezant te Japan, Pabst, geen afdoende oplossing. Hij gaf de Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken dan ook in overweging om het consulaat te Kobe te verheffen tot een consulaat-generaal.

Aldus werd met ingang van 1 januari 1930 het consulaat de Nederlanden te Kobe bij Koninklijk Besluit van 2 april 1930, no. 63, verheven tot consulaat-generaal, en werd Ch.S. Lechner benoemd tot consul-generaal der Nederlanden aldaar.

Als consulair ressort voor het consulaat-generaal werd bij ministeriële beschikking van 17 april 1930, no. 10741, vastgesteld Japan en het hele gebied Kwantung.

Na de repatriëring van Lechner in januari 1934 trad de tolk der 1ste klasse, de handels-expert W.H. de Roos, op als waarnemend consul-generaal.
Bij ministeriële beschikking van 11 juli 1938 werd De Roos eervol van deze waarneming ontheven en werd J.B.D. Pennink, voormalig handelswaarnemer in Palestina, belast met de waarneming van het consulaat-generaal. Hem werd bij Koninklijk Besluit van 16 juli 1938, no. 160, met ingang van 1 augustus 1938 de persoonlijke titel van consul-generaal verleend.

Op 31 juli 1942 verliet Pennink zijn post, waarna er tot 1949 geen vertegenwoordiging is geweest. Toen werd D. Ketel, lid van de Militaire Missie in Japan belast met de waarneming van de consulaire zaken te Kobe. (Source)

NOTES

  1. “Bij de opening van de haven in Kobe in 1868 vestigde Albert daar zijn hoofdagentschap terwijl er nieuwe agenten werden benoemd in Osaka, Nagasaki en Edo. Veranderingen in het bestuur deden Albert om ontslag vragen in 1872. Hij verliet Japan in 1874. Na zijn terugkomst in Nederland heeft hij nog de post van Japans Consul in Den Haag bekleed.” (H.J. Moeshart. Bewogen Betrekkingen, p. 187)
  2. Albertus Johannes Bauduin lived in Kobe from 1868 to 1870 and also acted there as Consul. What address?
  3. NHM in Hiogo (Kobe), geopend als subagentschap van Decima, opening haven 01.01.1868; gevestigd in jan. 1868; opgeheven 30.09.1878. Van 1868-1874 was de hoofdagent in Japan in Hiogo gevestigd. Source: For Trade and Society. History of the Netherlands Trading Society, 1824-1964. Teunis de Graaf, 2012. Page: Bijlage 1, 19.
  4. NHM in Osaka: opening haven 01.01.1868. Vestiging vanuit Hiogo onder beheer van een geëmployeerde van jan 1868-1872. Agentschap gevestigd in 1872; opgeheven 30.06.1874. Source: For Trade and Society. History of the Netherlands Trading Society, 1824-1964. Teunis de Graaf, 2012. Page: Bijlage 1, 21.
  5. Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 25 juni 2012, nr. 12.001386, is drs. Roderick Franciscus Nicolaas Willibrordus Wols benoemd tot consul-generaal der Nederlanden te Osaka/Kobe (het Keizerrijk Japan). (Through 2017)
  6. Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 4 juli 2012, nr. 12.001529, is drs. R.J. van Vollenhoven, ambtenaar van de Dienst Buitenlandse Zaken, benoemd tot buitengewoon en gevolmachtigd ambassadeur in het Keizerrijk Japan, met standplaats Tokio.
  7. Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 7 juni 2012, nr. 12.001285, is het consulaat der Nederlanden te Sapporo (het Keizerrijk Japan) met ingang van 1 mei 2012 opgeheven.
  8. Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 3 juli 2009, nr. 09.001807, is mevrouw drs. M.M. Bot benoemd tot consul-generaal der Nederlanden te Osaka/Kobe (het Keizerrijk Japan). ==>Margarita (Margriet) Bot
  9. Jan de Vries was Consul General from 1999 through 2005. He died May 23, 2006.
  10. Dirk Jan Kop, Consul General Aug 2005 – Jul 2009
  11. Henri Everaars, Aug 1995 – (what month?) 1999
  12. The 1879 Chronicle Directory places the Bonger Brothers at Ikuta 2
  13. In 1884 the Italian Consulate is located at No. 5. From when? Anybody else between the NHM and the Italian Consulate?
  14. Hiogo, concluded in Kyoto on March 26, 1868 by consuls and Japan: “Foreigners and Japanese may in future make agreements between themselves and at their own convenience, for leasing land or houses at this port; and that having purchased houses, (from japanese) Foreigners are at liberty to take them down and erect others themselves within the following boundaries …”

CONSULS AND RESIDENCES

List needs to be completed and cleaned up

1970?–1971? Address Unknown : W.Ch.E.A. de Vries
?–1976 Address Unknown : K.J. Stadtman
1976–1980 2-5-10 Kitano-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe (神戸市中央区北野町 2-5-10) : G.M. Kruissink
1981–1983? Address Unknown : J.A. Kooy

Aotani Gardens 402, 2-3-23 Shironoshita-dori, Nada-ku, Kobe

1986–1990 J.H.A. Leydekkers

2-7 Kumoi-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo

1991?–1995 : Joris Witkam
Aug 1995–1999 Henri Everaars
1999–2005 Jan de Vries

3-5 Yamate-cho, Ashiya, Hyogo

Aug 2005–Jul 2009 Dirk Jan Kop
July 2009–2012 Margarita Maria Bot
August 23, 2012–July 20, 2017 Roderick Franciscus Nicolaas Willibrordus Wols

Did earlier consul-generals find their own home?

LOCATIONS BY YEAR

The data below is from the Japan directories published by the Japan Gazette and the Daily Press, The Japan Times Directory, and the Yellow Pages, augmented with information from the National Archives of the Netherlands and research by Bernd Lepach published on the site Meiji Portraits.

Hiogo-Kobe

1872 — No. 5 (Kaigandori) Willem Conrad Korthals, Acting Consul

Note: The Netherlands Trading Society is listed at the same address. Staff: Willem Conrad Korthals, Agent | J. Martens | H. Bosma | D. J. van Ewyck
1873 — No. 5 (Kaigandori) Willem Conrad Korthals, Acting Consul
1874 — No. 5 (Kaigandori) Willem Conrad Korthals, Consul
1875 — N/A No mention of a Dutch consul
1876 — N/A No mention of a Dutch consul
1877 — N/A No mention of a Dutch consul
1878 — No Address Charles Braess, Acting Consul

Note: There is no address for the consulate, but Braess has a company on No. 101: C. Braess & Co.: Agents for Manchester Fire Insurance Co.; Netherlands-India Sea and Fire Insurance Co. of Batavia Samarang Sea and Fire Insurance Co.: Charles Braess | H. de Vos
1879 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1880 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1881 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1882 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1883 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1884 — No. 91 Anton Oestmann, Acting Consul
1885 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1886 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1887 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1888 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1889 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1890 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1891 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1892 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1893 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1894 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1895 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1896 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1897 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1898 — No. 91 Charles Braess, Acting Consul
1899 — 48, Nakayamate-dori, Sanchome Theodore Wassilieff, Consul-in-Charge

Note: Wassilieff is the Vice-Consul for Russia
1900 — 48, Nakayamate-dori, Sanchome Theodore Wassilieff, Consul-in-Charge
1901 — 48, Nakayamate-dori, Sanchome Theodore Wassilieff, Consul-in-Charge
1902 — Suwayama 3, Yamamoto-dori Gochome Jacob Hendrik de Reus, Consul for Japan
1903 — 8, Nakayamate-dori Itchome Jacob Hendrik de Reus (absent), Consul for Japan | Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Acting Consul
1904 — 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome Jacob Hendrik de Reus (absent), Consul for Japan | Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Acting Consul
1905 — 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Consul
1906 — 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Consul
1907 — 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Consul
1908 — 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Consul
1909 — 45, Yamamoto-dori Nichome Hendrik van Oordt de Lauwenrecht, Consul
1910 — 125, Kitano-cho Itchome J. Barendrecht, Consul for Japan, Kwantung and Korea
1911 — 12, Nakayamate-dori J. Barendrecht, Consul for Japan, Kwantung and Korea
1912 — 80, Kyo-machi W. de Beaufort, Consul
1913 — 80, Kyo-machi J. Barendrecht, Consul for Japan
1914 — 80, Kyo-machi G. S. D. Hamel, Consul for Japan
1915 — 80, Kyo-machi G. S. D. Hamel, Consul for Japan
1916 — 78-B, Kyo-machi P. R. Borger, Consul for Japan

Note: Appointed in 1915 according to the Regeerings-almanak voor Nederlandsch-Indië of 1919
1917 — 81, Kyo-machi P. R. Borger, Consul for Japan
1918 — 81, Kyo-machi P. R. Borger, Consul for Japan
1919— 81, Kyo-machi P. R. Borger, Consul for Japan
1920 — 76, Kyo-machi P. R. Borger, Consul for Japan
1921 — 28, Harima-machi Marius Johannes Quist, Consul for Japan
1922 — 28, Harima-machi Marius Johannes Quist, Consul for Japan | W. H. de Roos, Student-Interpreter
1923 — 72, Kyo-machi Christiaan Sigismund Lechner, Consul for Japan | W. H. de Roos, Assistant-Interpreter
1924 — 72, Kyo-machi Christiaan Sigismund Lechner, Consul for Japan | W. H. de Roos, Assistant-Interpreter
1925 — 72, Kyo-machi Christiaan Sigismund Lechner, Consul for Japan | W. H. de Roos, Assistant-Interpreter
1926 — 72, Kyo-machi (Crescent Building) No Names
1927 — 72, Kyo-machi (Crescent Building) No Names
1928 — 72, Kyo-machi (Crescent Building) W. H. de Roos, Acting Consul | T. Elink-Schuurman, Vice-Consul
1929 — 72, Kyo-machi (Crescent Building) T. Elink-Schuurman, Acting Consul | R. W. Besier, Assistant Interpreter
1930 — 72, Kyo-machi Christiaan Sigismund Lechner, Consul-General | W. H. de Roos, Consul-Interpreter
1931 — 72, Kyo-machi Christiaan Sigismund Lechner, Consul-General | W. H. de Roos, Consul-Interpreter | N. A. J. de Voogd, Interpreter
1932 MISSING
1933/1934 — Meikai Building, 32 Akashi-machi, Kobe-ku Christiaan Sigismund Lechner, Consul-General | W. H. de Roos, Consul-Interpreter | N. A. J. de Voogd, Interpreter
1935 MISSING
1936 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Acting Consul-General | N. A. J. de Voogd, Interpreter
1937 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Acting Consul-General | N. A. J. de Voogd and Ph. J. C. Tissen, Interpreters
1938 MISSING
1939 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Acting Consul-General | N. A. J. de Voogd, Interpreter | Ph. J. C. Tissen, Archivist
1940 MISSING
1941 — 32, Akashi-machi J. B. D. Pennink, Consul-General | N. A. J. de Voogd, Consul (Interpreter) | Philip J. C. Tissen, Chancellor | W. J. de Bruyn, Secretary
1942-1945 WWII
1946 — 139, Yamamoto-dori 3-chome C.W. Brand, Netherlands Mission for West Japan. If correct, this was a temporary address.
1947 — 150, Yamamoto-dori 3-chome C.W. Brand, Netherlands Mission for West Japan. (A painting completed in this year by Japanese artist Komatsu Matsuki shows the consulate at this location.)
1948 — 150, Yamamoto-dori 3-chome C.W. Brand, Netherlands Mission for West Japan.
1949 MISSING
1950 MISSING
1951 — 24, Kyomachi C.W. Brand, Netherlands Mission for West Japan. c/o National Handelsbank at Bank of Tokyo Building.
1952 MISSING
1953 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Consul-General.

Note: Meikai Building
1954 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Consul-General.
1955 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Consul-General.
1956 — 32, Akashi-machi W. H. de Roos, Consul-General.
1957 MISSING
1958 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku No Name

Note: Netherlands Consulate General
1959 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku No Name

Note: Netherlands Consulate General
1960 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1961 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku G. J. Dissevelt, Consul General | N. van Zelm, Chancellor
1962 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1963 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1964 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1965 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1966 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N. van Zelm, Vice-Consul
1967 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1968 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1969 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1970 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1971 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1972 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1973 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1974 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku W. Ch. E. A. de Vries, Consul General
1975 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku N/A
1976 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku K. J. Stadtman, Consul General | G. M. Kruissink, Vice-Consul
1977 — 5th floor Denden Bldg., 64, Naniwa-cho, Ikuta-ku K. J. Stadtman, Consul General | G. M. Kruissink, Vice-Consul
1978 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku K. J. Stadtman, Consul General | G. M. Kruissink, Vice-Consul
1979 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku K. J. Stadtman, Consul General | G. M. Kruissink, Vice-Consul
1980 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku G. M. Kruissink, Acting Consul General
1981 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku G. M. Kruissink, Acting Consul General
1982 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. A. Kooy, Consul General
1983 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. A. Kooy, Consul General
1984 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. A. Kooy, Consul General
1985 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. A. Kooy, Consul General
1986 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. H. A. Leydekkers, Consul General
1987 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. H. A. Leydekkers, Consul General
1988 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. H. A. Leydekkers, Consul General
1989 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. H. A. Leydekkers, Consul General
1990 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku J. H. A. Leydekkers, Consul General
1991 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General
1992— 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General
1993 — 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General
1994— 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General
1995— 20th floor Kobe C.I.T. Building, 1-14 Hamabe-dori 5-chome, Fukiai-ku Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General

Note: After the Great Hanshin earthquake of January 17, the Consulate General moves to Osaka.

Osaka 19th Century

1872 — Umemotocho, Kawaguchi Pieter Eduard Pistorius, Vice-Consul

Note: The Netherlands Trading Society is listed at the same addresses. Staff: Pieter Eduard Pistorius.
1873 — N/A N/A
1874 — N/A N/A
1875 — 4 Hakodate Yashiki Johann Carl Jacob Klein, Vice-Consul
1876 — 4 Hakodate Yashiki Johann Carl Jacob Klein, Vice-Consul
1877 — 4 Hakodate Yashiki Johann Carl Jacob Klein, Vice-Consul

Osaka 20th Century

1995 — Rm. 2726, Osaka Hilton Hotel, 8-8 Umeda 1-chome, Kita-ku Willem Joris Witkam, Consul-General
1996 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku

Should be 33Fl.! But was it always 33rd floor?
Hendrik Cornelis Johannes (Henri) Everaars, Consul General
1997 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Hendrik Cornelis Johannes (Henri) Everaars, Consul General
1998 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Hendrik Cornelis Johannes (Henri) Everaars, Consul General
1999 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Hendrik Cornelis Johannes (Henri) Everaars, Consul General
2000 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Hendrik Cornelis Johannes (Henri) Everaars, Consul General
2001 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Jan de Vries, Consul General
2002— 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Jan de Vries, Consul General
2003 — 6th Fl., Twin 21 MID Tower, 1-61 Shiromi 2-chome, Chuo-ku Jan de Vries, Consul General
2004-2020 MISSING
2021 — Kitahama 1-Chome Heiwa building 8B, 1-1-14 Kitahama, Chuo-ku Gerard Theo Michels, Consul (since 2017)

Note: Moved to Kitahama in 2016!

IMAGES

KOBE

Detail from the scroll Setsuyo Sankai Koran
Detail from the scroll Setsuyo Sankai Koran (摂陽山海古覧) which shows the Kobe area as it looked just before the Foreign Settlement was established: 1. Ikuta Jinja shrine; 2. Future location of the Dutch consulate; 3. Sannomiya Jinja shrine; 4. Future location of the Foreign Settlement; 5. Zenshoji temple (善照寺); 6. Kobe village.
Kobe 1870s
Kobe in the 1870s: 1. Zenshōji Temple; 2. Location of Consul Korthals's residence, later purchased by Hyogo Prefecture and used as the Hyogo Prefectural Office (Kenchō). It was moved to this location in 1873. (Unattributed, albumen print, View on Kobe, 140302-0041, MeijiShowa. Detail.)

On February 20, 1868, Chancellor Kleintjes writes in his diary that he moved in with Bauduin. He reports on March 12 that he arrives at the “Dsjendsjoodsjie” temple, the Zenshōji (善照寺), in Kobe, after his return there from an extended stay in Osaka.

Moeshart writes that Bauduin initially stayed in a temple in Kobe. So, most likely the first location used as a consulate in Kobe is the Zenshōji temple. The many walks that Kleintjes describes in his diary are all feasible from Zenshōji. It also seems too much of a coincidence that the land that consul Korthals purchased in Kobe, is right behind this temple.

In the list of documents about the opening of Kobe Port at the Kobe University Library (神戸開港文書 目録一覧), there is one document about Japanese officials meeting with the “Dutch Consul” at Zenshōji in Kobe, dated March 11, 1868 (910. G2-0696 行政-願書・要望・請願伺届).

The Zenshōji temple was located at what is now Motomachi 3-chome, relatively close to what is now Motomachi Station.

1868 (Keio 4) map of Kobe
1868 (Keio 4) map of Kobe: 1. Zenshōji Temple (善照寺); 2. Dutch consulate at Ikuta no Baba; 3. Ikuta Jinja Shrine; 4. Foreign settlement. (若林良, 開港神戸之図, 慶応4, 1868, 210125-0008-OS, MeijiShowa.)
1868 (Keio 4) map of Kobe
Detail of above map. The Dutch Consulate is located at the entrance of the approach to Ikuta Jinja shrine, east of Sannomiya Jinja shrine. This is the area where the Kobe Incident took place on February 4, 1868.
Map of Sannomiya at the Start of Meiji
Page 134 from Kobe Kokon no Sugata (神戸古今の姿, Kobe Then and Now) published in 1929 (Showa 4), showing a map with the location of the Dutch consulate near Sannomiya and Ikuta shrines.
Map of Dutch Consulate near Sannomiya Shrine
Map with the location of the Dutch consulate (2) near Sannomiya (1) and Ikuta (3) shrines. Source: Kobe Kokon no Sugata (神戸古今の姿, Kobe Then and Now), 1929, pp. 134.
Kobe, ca. 1870
Believed to be the corner near Sannomiya shrine in Kobe, ca. 1870. The trees mark the location of the shrine. The house on the corner is a carpenter and joiner. This corresponds with the Japanese 木屋 written on the 1929 map. The location of the Dutch consulate would have been on the right, just out of the frame of this image. (Albumen print, anonymous, Huizen en winkels te Kobe in Japan, KITLV 83050, Leiden University Libraries. Digitally restored by the author.)
Ikuta no Baba Road to Ikuta Jinja in Kobe
The road along which the first Dutch consulate in Kobe was located lead to Ikuta Jinja shrine and was known as Ikuta no Baba (生田の馬場). Source: Kobe Kokon no Sugata (神戸古今の姿, Kobe Then and Now), 1929, pp. 136.

The second location of the Consulate of the Netherlands in Kobe was east of Sannomiya Jinja shrine, at the approach to Ikuta Jinja shrine, at that time a beautiful tree-lined road in the countryside.

Newly opened Kobe port by Hasegawa Sasanobu II
The Dutch flag flying at the newly opened Kobe port, ca 1870. "The scene of western style buildings in Kobe" (摂州神戸西洋館大湊の賑ひ, Sesshu Kobe Seiyo-kan Ominato no Nigiwai) by Hasegawa Sasanobu II (1848-1940).
Dutch consulate and Netherlands Trading Society in Kobe
The Dutch consulate and the Netherlands Trading Society's office at No 5 in Kobe's Foreign Settlement, ca. 1870s. (Unattributed, albumen print, Statige gebouwen aan de Bund te Hiogo in de provincie Settsu, Nippon op de westelijke oever van de Baai van Osaka, 1870s, Coll.no. RV-2732-16b-8, Collection Nationaal Museum van Wereldculturen.)
The Foreign Settlement in Kobe, 1870s
The Dutch consulate and the Netherlands Trading Society's office at No 5 in Kobe's Foreign Settlement as seen from the back, ca. 1870s. The street in the center is Maemachi. No. 2 is believed to have been the residence. No. 3 is a stone godown (warehouse). (Unattributed, albumen print, Foreign Settlement, 120410-0025, MeijiShowa.)
Kyomachi, Kobe, 1920s
A view on Kobe 's Kyomachi avenue in the 1920s from the roof garden of the Oriental Hotel. Between 1912 and 1915, the consulate was located at No. 80, while it was at No. 81 between 1917 and 1919. (Postcard, anonymous, View on Kobe, 160903-0015, MeijiShowa.)
211206-0027 - Crescent Building, Kobe, 1920s
The Crescent Building at 72 Kyomachi. The Consulate of the Netherlands in Kobe was located here from around 1923 (Taisho 12). It was a two-room office measuring 27 tsubo (89 m²). (Unattributed, collotype on postcard stock, Crescent Building, 211206-0027, MeijiShowa.)
Kyomachi, Kobe, 1920s
View on Kobe's Kyomachi avenue in the 1920s. No. 72 marks the Crescent Building. The Consulate of the Netherlands in Kobe was located here from around 1923 (Taisho 12). (Postcard, anonymous, Kyomachi, 70420-0026, MeijiShowa.)
Akashimachi, Kobe, 1920s
A view on Akashimachi in Kobe. The consulate was located at No. 32 from the 1930s through 1942 (Showa 17). The building on the right is the office of Osaka Shosen Kaisha at 5 Kaigandori. (Postcard, anonymous, Akashimachi, 70420-0028, MeijiShowa.)
211206-0041 - Akashimachi, Kobe, 1920s
A view of Kobe's Akashimachi in the 1930s: 1. Osaka Shosen Kaisha at 5 Kaigandori, the location occupied by the consulate during most of the 1870s; 2. Meikai Building at No. 32. The consulate was located here from 1930 through 1941, and after WWII. The Meikai was surprisingly close to the first location inside the foreign settlement. (Unattributed, collotype on postcard stock, Akashimachi, 211206-0041, MeijiShowa.)
 Japan Directory, 1884
Japan Directory, 1884.

Japan Directory 1884 : Page 101
Kobe Foreign Settlement (神戸外国人居留地) 91
Acting Consul: A. Oestmann (Agent for Hamburg Bremen Fire Insurance Company, located at No. 47)

Matsuki Komatsu — Painting of Dutch Consulate, Kobe
Postcard of a painting of the Dutch Consulate-General in Kobe shortly after the end of WWII by Japanese artist Komatsu Matsuki (小松益喜, 1904–2002). Entered in the 14th Shinseisaku Art Exhibition, 1950 (Showa 25). (Postcard, Komatsu Matsuki, Dutch Consulate-General, 211205-0048, MeijiShowa.)

OSAKA

The Kawaguchi Settlement around 1870
The Kawaguchi foreign settlement around 1870. The location of the Dutch Consulate and the offices of the Netherlands Trading Society is marked with a D. (UrbanScope Vol.3 [2012] 37.)
Dutch Consulate, Kawaguchi, Osaka, 1870
The Dutch consulate and the buildings of the Netherlands Trading Society at the Kawaguchi foreign settlement in Osaka. (Koenraad Wolter Gratama, albumen print, ca. 1870, 6191, Nagasaki University Library. Modified.)
Dutch Consulate and office of the Netherlands Trading Society in the Kawaguchi Foreign Settlement in Osaka
The Dutch consulate and office of the Netherlands Trading Society (Dutch: Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij or NHM) in the Kawaguchi foreign settlement in Osaka, ca. 1870. (Koenraad Wolter Gratama, albumen print, 6191, Nagasaki University Library. Modified.)
Diorama of the Kawaguchi Foreign Settlement in Osaka, ca. 1880
Diorama of the Kawaguchi Foreign Settlement in Osaka, ca. 1880. Although the diorama appears to show similar buildings as shown on the above photograph, the Dutch consulate and NHM were no longer located here around 1880.
The Kawaguchi Foreign Settlement in Osaka, ca. 1893.
The Kawaguchi Foreign Settlement in Osaka, ca. 1893. The buildings of the Dutch consulate and the Netherlands Trading Society can no longer be seen.
Osaka Castle
The Twin 21 MID Tower behind Osaka Castle in 2006. Of the two identical towers, the one on the right, partly hidden behind the Matsushita IMP Building (松下IMPビル), housed the consulate general. (Kjeld Duits, 60315-0070.)

Published
Updated

Reference for Citations

Duits, Kjeld (). Hiogo-Kobe-Osaka Data, From Dejima to Tokyo. Retrieved on April 23, 2024 (GMT) from https://www.dejima-tokyo.com/articles/26/hiogo-kobe-osaka-data

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