DATA FOR NAGASAKI : INTRODUCTION
This page features the raw research notes made during the research stage. The notes are incomplete and may contain initial errors in understanding that were corrected in the final text. They are nonetheless helpful for further study. The data on this page is not shown in the printed book.
IMPORTANT: Not all raw data discovered is displayed on this website. There is more data in my personal notes.
Our story starts with the last Opperhoofd (chief) of Dejima, Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius, who also became the first political representative of the Netherlands in Japan when, in order to negotiate with the Japanese government for a treaty, he was made Dutch Commissioner in Japan in 1855 (Ansei 2).
These are the known locations of the Consulate in Nagasaki. The years are mostly (but not exclusively) based on the publication years of the Japan Directory, the Yellow Pages, etc., so they need to be checked more carefully. They generally run one year behind.
|01 (1852) 1855–1863 (9 years)||Building of the Opperhoofd (Later became Dejima lots 2 & 3)
Curtius arrived in 1852 and was made Dutch Commissioner in Japan in 1855 (Ansei 2).
Consul-General Jan Karel de Wit used the same building. He was appointed Consul General on November 7, 1859 and took up his post in February 1860. He left Japan in June 1863. The Consulate-General was then moved to Yokohama.
|1863–1867 or 1868?||Dejima 2 & 3
Albert Bauduin was Consul in Nagasaki from 1863 to 1867, he moved to Hiogo after the port was opened there in January 1868 (I have to check the exact date that he moved). He and his brother Toon lived at Dejima 2 and 3.
|02 1870–1875?||Dejima 1
According to research by Brian Burke-Gaffney, the Consulate was located at Dejima 1 in January 1870, F.P. Tombrink was Consul.
In 1872, Johannes Jacobus van der Pot was listed on this address as Acting Consul. This was also the address of The Netherlands Trading Society (NHM). Van der Pot was Acting Agent while J.C. Keg and F.P. Tombrink were also listed as employees.
Van der Pot was last listed as Consul in the 1875 Japan Directory.
Research by Burke-Gaffney states that NHM was listed here through 1878.
|03 1875? –||Address Unknown
From 1876, Marcus Octavius Flowers was listed as the Acting Consul. Flowers was the Consul of Great Britain, so likely the address is the same as that of the British Consulate.
From 1876 on, the situation is a bit unclear (see LOCATIONS BY YEAR below).
Between 1881 and 1889, Amandus Reddelien is listed first as Acting Consul, then as Consul. No address is given in the Japan Directory, but Brian Burke-Gaffney will likely know.
However, Reddelien was a German merchant, born in Hamburg. We need to make sure whether he indeed was a true Dutch Consul during this period, and that there was an official Consulate in Nagasaki.
The same situation appears to exist for Hermann Iwersen between 1893 and 1895. Iwersen is also a German merchant.
During the rest of the period, Dutch affairs in Nagasaki are taken care of by other consulates, especially the British one at 6 Oura. The last Acting Vice-Consul for the Netherlands is British Consul Ferdinand Cecil Greatrex who leaves under dramatic circumstances after the outbreak of WWII.
- The Dutch moved from Hirado to Dejima on June 25, 1641. Most of the buildings were built before the end of the 17th century. Just a few buildings were added later, while some buildings were rebuilt.
- In most two-storied buildings, the ground floor was used as storage space, while the first floor were living quarters.
- The Opperhoofd’s residence was remodeled in 1738 and 1784. Especially the remodeling in 1784 was significant. (Deshima: Its Pictorial Heritage, Nagasaki City, 1987, page 295)
- A devastating fire destroyed destroyed most of the buildings on Dejima on April 21, 1798. Most new buildings were completed by September of the same year, but the Opperhoofd’s residence was only completed by February 25, 1809. A kitchen, a dining room with storage, a veranda (gaanderij) and a coal storage were added. (Deshima: Its Pictorial Heritage, Nagasaki City, 1987, page 296)
- The Opperhoofd’s house appears to have been remodeled again just before the arrival of Opperhoofd Pieter Albert Bik in 1842. (Deshima: Its Pictorial Heritage, Nagasaki City, 1987, page 297). A plan of this remodeling was made and remains in the Bik Collection at the Nationaal Archief in the Netherlands. (Deshima: Its Pictorial Heritage, Nagasaki City, 1987, page 298). A 1987 copy is rendered below (see IMAGES).
- The plan shows the kitchen, bathroom, living room, a room for courtesans (meidkamer), and a new balcony (plattie).
- In 1859, a large fire destroyed many buildings at Dejima, but the consulate building escaped destruction. Dutch naval officer Hendericus Octavus Wichers described the fire in his diary of his stay at Dejima where he instructed Japanese students about modern seafaring. The Amsterdam Scheepvaartmuseum holds a rare copy of this diary (there are only seven copies known to exist), I have requested scans. I especially want to know why the Consulate building escaped damage. Was something special done to save it?
- “Toen in 1863 de Nederlandse diplomatieke vertegenwoordiging van Nagasaki naar Edo werd verplaatst, werd Albert [Bauduin] benoemd tot Nederlands consul in Nagasaki. De beide broers gingen in het voormalige Opperhoofdshuis wonen.” (H.J. Moeshart. Bewogen Betrekkingen, p. 187)
- “Albert nam zijn taak in Japan niet al te zwaar op, ondanks zijn klachten over grote drukte in zijn brieven aan zijn zusters. Hij werd berispt door de consul-generaal over nalatigheid en ook de Handelsmaatschappij was niet op alle punten tevreden met zijn functioneren.” (H.J. Moeshart. Bewogen Betrekkingen, p. 187)
- “Bij de opening van de haven in Kobe in 1868 vestigde Albert daar zijn hoofdagentschap terwijl er nieuwe agenten werden benoemd in Osaka, Nagasaki en Edo. Veranderingen in het bestuur deden Albert om ontslag vragen in 1872. Hij verliet Japan in 1874. Na zijn terugkomst in Nederland heeft hij nog de post van Japans Consul in Den Haag bekleed.” (H.J. Moeshart. Bewogen Betrekkingen, p. 187)
- Albertus Johannes Bauduin: Dutch Consul at Nagasaki from 1863-1868.
- The Dutch consulate in 1874 appears to be at a different location from that in the early 1860s according to this Nagasaki Library entry?
- When were Dejima 1, 2 and 3 designed, built, changed? By whom? When were the buildings torn down, and why?
- Many plans are described in「出島図 その景観と変遷」published by Nagasaki City in 1987. What about illustrations, photos, layouts of the Opperhoofd buildings and their interiors.
- We have a floor plan of the Opperhoofd building from the archives of Opperhoofd Pieter Albert Bik (1798–1855), who resided on Dejima from 1842 to 1845 (see map under IMAGES below). How similar would the layout of the premises have been when the building was used by Curtius, De Wit and Bauduin? Are there descriptions or plans of the interior from this later period?
- Do we have information on how Curtius, De Wit, Bauduin and Van der Pot lived and ate?
- Any descriptions of the Consulate buildings by Japanese or other nationalities?
- The current reconstructed Opperhoofd building is based on the situation in the 1820s, I believe? How similar was this to the situation in the 1850s and 1860s?
- Brian, are you able to accurately date (or even attribute) the photo of Dejima shown at the bottom of this page? The extension on the far left corner means that this photo dates from at least later than 1868. The Dutch flag is hoisted at Dejima 2-3, while according to your research Dejima 1 becomes the Consulate from 1870. See my notes below the photograph.
- Why was the Consulate moved from Dejima 2 & 3 to Number 1? Is there any documentation about the reasons? Who moved into 2 & 3? Until when did it remain in Bauduin’s name?
LOCATIONS BY YEAR
The data below is from the Japan directories published by the Japan Gazette and the Daily Press, augmented with information from the Nagasaki study conducted by Brian Burke-Gaffney and Lane R. Earns, and research by Bernd Lepach published on the site Meiji Portraits.
|1861 — Dejima : No Address||Jan Karel de Wit, Consul-General|
|1862 — Dejima : No Address||Jan Karel de Wit, Consul-General | J. P. Metman, Chancellor and Vice-Consul|
|1863 — Dejima : No Address||Jan Karel de Wit, Consul-General | J. P. Metman, Chancellor and Vice-Consul | Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort, Medical Attendant | L. de St Aulaire, Student Interpreter|
|1864 — Dejima : No Address||Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Vice-Consul | Dr. Antonius Franciscus Bauduin, Medical Officer|
|1865 — Dejima : No Address||Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul|
|1866 — Dejima : No Address||Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul|
|1867 — Dejima : No Address||Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul|
|1868 — No Address||Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul|
|1869 — No Address||Albertus Johannes Bauduin, Consul|
|1871 — No Address||F. P. Tombrink, Consul|
|1872 — Dejima No. 1||Johannes Jacobus van der Pot, Acting Consul
Note: The Netherlands Trading Society is listed at the same address: J. J. van der Pot, Acting Agent | J. C. Keg | F. P. Tombrink
|1873 — No Address||F. P. Tombrink, Consul|
|1874 — No Address||Johannes Jacobus van der Pot, Acting Consul | J. J. Keg, Secretary
NL-HaNA_2.05.10.08_29_0440 (+ previous & following documents): Van der Pot is allowed absence (leaving for Yokohama). December 16: Consul of Great Britain Flowers takes over consular duties of the Netherlands (NL-HaNA_2.05.10.08_29_0451 & NL-HaNA_2.05.10.08_29_0453).
|1875 — No Address||Johannes Jacobus van der Pot, Consul
Letter Yokohama January 5: Van der Pot has been assigned to NHM in Yokohama and requests release as Consul in Nagasaki (NL-HaNA_2.05.10.08_29_0470).
|1876 — No Address||Marcus Octavius Flowers, Acting Consul
Note: Flowers is the Consul of Great Britain.
|1877 — No Address||Marcus Octavius Flowers, Acting Consul|
|1878 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Acting Consul
Note: Reddelien is a German merchant, born in Hamburg.
|1879 — No Address||Victor Roehr, Acting Consul
Note: Roehr is a German merchant.
|1880 — No Address||Victor Roehr, Acting Consul|
|1881 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Acting Consul|
|1882 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1883 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1884 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1885 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1886 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1887 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1888 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul|
|1889 — No Address||Amandus Reddelien, Consul (NL-HaNA_2.05.10.08_28_0263)|
|1890 — 4 Umegasaki||Fernando George Müller-Beeck, Consul
Note: Müller-Beeck is the Consul of Germany.
|1891 — 4 Umegasaki||Fernando George Müller-Beeck, Consul|
|1892 — 4 Umegasaki||Fernando George Müller-Beeck, Consul|
|1893 — No Address||Hermann Iwersen, Consul
Note: Iwersen is a German merchant.
|1894 — No Address||Hermann Iwersen, Consul|
|1895 — No Address||Hermann Iwersen, Consul|
|1896 — 4 Umegasaki||Fernando George Müller-Beeck, Consul|
|1897 — 4 Umegasaki||Fernando George Müller-Beeck, Consul|
|1898 — 4 Umegasaki||Fritz August Thiel, Consul
Note: Thiel is the Consul of Germany. His personal address is Nagasaki 4.
|1899 — No Address||Francis Frederick Steenackers, Consul, Consul-Honoraire
Note: Steenackers is Consul and Chargé du Vice-Consulat of France. His personal address is Nagasaki 7.
|1900 — No Address||Francis Frederick Steenackers, Consul, Consul-Honoraire|
|1901 — No Address||Francis Frederick Steenackers, Consul, Consul-Honoraire (absent) | Gustav Goudareau, Acting
Note: Goudareau is Acting Consul for France
|1902 — No Address||Francis Frederick Steenackers, Consul, Consul-Honoraire (absent) | Gustav Goudareau (absent) | G. Fuchs, In Charge
Note: Fuchs is Vice-Consul in charge for France. His address is listed as 7 Sagari-matsu-yamate.
|1903 — 3 Oura Higashi-Yamate||Francis Frederick Steenackers, Consul-Honoraire, Acting (absent) | Gustav Goudareau, In Charge|
|1904 — 3 Oura Higashi-Yamate||Francis Frederick Steenackers, Consul-Honoraire, Acting (absent) | Gustav Goudareau, In Charge|
|1905 — 3 Oura Higashi-Yamate||Gustav Goudareau, In Charge|
|1906 — 3 Oura Higashi-Yamate||Gustav Goudareau, In Charge|
|1907 — 3 Oura Higashi-Yamate||Gustav Goudareau, In Charge|
|1908 — 3 Oura Higashi-Yamate||Gustav Goudareau, In Charge
Note: Goudareau is listed as Consul in Charge of the Vice-Consulate of France. Need to check when that started.
|1909 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate
WHY DOES THE DIRECTORY CONTINUE TO USE THIS ADDRESS THROUGH 1915?
|Frank William Walter Playfair, In Charge
Note: Playfair is the Consul of Great Britain at 6 Oura. Addresses of other consulates at this time: Austria-Hungary: 6 | China: 2 | Denmark: 7 | Germany: 11 | Great Britain: 6 | Italy: 11 | Norway: 7 | Portugal: 7 | Sweden: 7 | Switzerland: 11 | US on 12, Higashi-Yamate | Russia on 5, Naminohira Yamate | Spain on 8, Bund | Switzerland on 11, Oura, Bund.
|1910 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate||Arthur M. Chalmers, In Charge
Note: Chalmers is the Acting Consul of Great Britain at 6 Oura.
|1911 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate||Arthur M. Chalmers, In Charge|
|1912 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate||Arthur M. Chalmers, In Charge
Note: Chalmers is the Consul of Great Britain at 6, Oura. But the listing of 1912 says "absent". Acting Consul is J. T. Wawn.
|1913 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate||Ralph George Elliott Forster, In Charge
Note: Forster is the Consul of Great Britain at 6, Oura.
|1914 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate||Ralph George Elliott Forster, In Charge|
|1915 — 3, Oura Higashi-Yamate||G. P. Patton, In Charge
Note: Patton is the Acting-Consul of Great Britain at 6, Oura.
|1916 — 6 Oura||John Twizell Wawn, In Charge
Note: Wawn is the Acting-Consul of Great Britain at 6, Oura.
|1917 — 6 Oura||John Twizell Wawn, In Charge|
|1918 — 6 Oura||John Twizell Wawn, In Charge|
|1919 — 6 Oura||R. Boulter, In Charge
Note: Boulter is the Acting-Consul of Great Britain.
|1920 — 6 Oura||Thomas Joseph Harrington, In Charge
Note: Harrington is the Consul of Great Britain.
|1921 — 6 Oura||Oswald White, In Charge
Note: White is the Consul of Great Britain.
|1922 — 6 Oura||Oswald White, In Charge|
|1923 — 6 Oura||Oswald White, In Charge|
|1926 — No Address||Montague Bentley Talbot Paske-Smith C.B.E., Acting Vice-Consul
Note: Paske-Smith is the Consul of Great Britain.
|1927 — No Address||Montague Bentley Talbot Paske-Smith C.B.E., Acting Vice-Consul|
|1928 — No Address||Montague Bentley Talbot Paske-Smith C.B.E., Acting Vice-Consul|
|1929 — 6 Oura||Ferdinand Cecil Greatrex, Acting Vice-Consul
Note: Greatrex is the Consul of Great Britain.
|1936 — 6 Oura||Ferdinand Cecil Greatrex, Acting Vice-Consul|
|1937 — 6 Oura||Ferdinand Cecil Greatrex, Acting Vice-Consul|
|1939 — 6 Oura||Ferdinand Cecil Greatrex, Acting Vice-Consul|
|1941 — 6 Oura||Ferdinand Cecil Greatrex, Acting Vice-Consul|
Note that Dirk de Graeff van Polsbroek lived at the building marked G, Dutch physician Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort, who established the first Western medical school and hospital in Japan, at R.
Dating this photo
Flagpole: A photo by Beato dated 1865 shows that the flagpole next to Dejima Lot No. 3 already existed at that time.
Promenade: Construction of the promenade along the Dejima coastline, and the island’s extension on the left, both visible in this image, was started in April 1867.
Dejima Shinbashi: The bridge on the right of Dejima is Dejima Shinbashi, built in 1869.
Umegasaki Bridge: The bridge in the foreground is the Umegasaki Bridge, also built in 1869.
The situation on this image looks very similar to this image published in The Far East on July 1, 1871. Even the shape of the trees looks similar. One important difference is that the shed that is visible on the far right of the warehouse in The Far East photo and this undated photo is not visible on the photo above. The shed is also marked on the 1868 map, so the above photo shows the situation after the shed was razed, not before it was built. If The Far East image was taken shortly before July 1, 1871, it means that the photo above dates from after that date.
So, the earliest date possible would be 1871.
Deshima Church: In July 1875, Deshima Church was built on lots 8 and 9, a seminary was attached on lots 10 and 11 in 1878. These buildings are not yet visible on this image.
So, the latest date possible is 1875, which narrows it down to between 1871 and 1875.
Some questions remain that may assist in narrowing down the date. According to research by Brian Burke-Gaffney, the Consulate was located at Dejima 1 in January 1870. Did the flagpole remain at Dejima 3 after this move? And if so, for how long? And when was the large warehouse on the far right of Dejima torn down? When was the shed taken down?
If the Consulate was not located at Dejima 2 and 3 after January 1870, it means that in this photo the two lots are no longer the Dutch consulate… In that case I should probably select another photograph. This photo shows the consulate buildings and their surroundings amazingly clearly, though.
The photographer has not yet been identified.
The veranda had glass windows and was used as an observation deck to observe ships entering the harbor.
NOTE: Also try to get this image of the garden of the consulate ca. 1863.
According to the Nagasaki University Library database (also here) this is the old house of the opperhoofd (kapitan in Japanese). Dutch Consul Albert Bauduin lived here from October, 1865. Dr. C.G. van Mansvelt, who arrived in July 1866, stayed here until February 1867 when he moved to No. 11-A Dejima. Also use the data of this image.
In 2006, the building was reconstructed.
Japan Directory 1884 : Page 117
Consul: A. Reddelien (Owner of Reddelien & Co., merchants and representatives of North Assurance Co., Trans-Atlantic Fire Insurance Co. and Chartered Mercantile Bank. Also consul for Sweden and Norway.) — Note: German nationality.
Reference for Citations
Duits, Kjeld (). Nagasaki Data, From Dejima to Tokyo. Retrieved on December 7, 2023 (GMT) from https://www.dejima-tokyo.com/articles/31/nagasaki-data